Fig. 3. (a) Brain activity was greater for the forward language switch than for the backward language switch (Effect 5: Forward versus backward cross-language switching). Significant activity was observed in the right prefrontal cortex (rt. PFC), left inferior frontal gyrus (lt. IFG), left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (lt. STG/SMG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left caudate nucleus (lt. CN). (b) Brain activity representing the effects of Task switching (Effect 6). Significant activity was observed in the lt. IFG, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsal premotor area), left inferior parietal lobe, and right inferior occipital lobe. (c) Brain activity representing Effect 12 (Forward language switch > forward action switch). Significant activity was observed in the rt. PFC. The threshold was set at a height threshold of p < 0.001 (uncorrected) and an extent threshold of p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons in all the above contrasts. Adopted from Hosoda et al. (2012)