Although protected by the blood brain barrier, the central nervous system (CNS) and its surrounding structures are susceptible to a wide spectrum of infections by various microorganisms. Infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or even eukaryotes like fungi and protozoa. Infections commonly cause inflammation (1). Inflammation in the brain (encephalitis), meninges (meningitis), or spinal cord (myelitis) can result in damage of these tissues. Some infections can manifest as behavioural changes such as deficits in learning and memory, or even cause neurodegeneration (2). Systemic infections such as Lyme disease can manifest neurologically (3). Neurodegenerative disorders involving prions have also shown infectious properties. Prevention and treatment of many types of infection with drugs and vaccines is now a reality. To properly manage these infections we need: accurate early diagnosis, timely antimicrobial treatments, and knowledge and anticipation of the secondary pathophysiological consequences of the specific disease (4). With insight into the mechanisms of infections in the CNS, we work towards eliminating these diseases.

EUKARYOTIC
Toxoplasmosis (James Samsom)
a. Cause: Toxoplasma gondii
b. Signs and Symptoms
c. Diagnosis
d. Pathophysiology
e. Treatment
f. Epidemiology

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis(John Khoushoo)
a.Pathogenesis: cause (Naegleria Fowleri) and development.
b. Pathophysiology: pathological changes caused by N. Fowleri in the CNS.
c. Signs and Symptoms
d. Diagnosis
e. Treatments
f. Epidemiology
g. Current Research

BACTERIAL
Neurosyphilis (Peter Egeto)
a. Introduction: Transmission and disease course
b. Diagnosis: Screening and confirmation
c. Forms of neurosyphilis: General paresis, tabes dorsalis, asymptomatic neurosyphilis
d. Treatments: Syphilis, psychiatric symptoms


Lyme Disease and Neuroborreliosis (Robert Amaral)
a. Bacterial Profile: Borrelia
b. Epidemiologyc. Signs and Symptoms
d. Transmission
e. Specific Neurological Bacterial Effects
f. Diagnosis
g. Treatment


Bacterial Meningitis (Labeeba Nusrat)
a. Pathophysiology: Mechanisms of Bacterial Meningitis in CNS
b. Common Bacterial Sources: Meningococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, etc
c. Clinical Symptoms
d. Diagnosis: Enhanced form of diagnosis alongside current methods
e. Prevention, Current forms of Treatment and future directions
f. Other Forms of Meningitis: Brief Overview
g. Epidemiology


VIRAL
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (Maryam Saleemi)
a. Cause: John Cunningham Virus (JCV)
b. Predisposing Risk Factors
c. Symptoms
d. Pathophysiology
e. Diagnosis
f. Potential Therapies & Current Research

References:
1. Cunningham, C., Wilcockson, D. C., Campion, S., Lunnon, K. & Perry, V. H. Central and systemic endotoxin challenges exacerbate the local inflammatory response and increase neuronal death during chronic neurodegeneration. J. Neurosci. 25, 9275-9284 (2005).
2. Williamson, L. L., Sholar, P. W., Mistry, R. S., Smith, S. H. & Bilbo, S. D. Microglia and memory: modulation by early-life infection. J. Neurosci. 31, 15511-15521 (2011).
3. Williams, C. L. et al. Lyme disease in childhood: clinical and epidemiologic features of ninety cases. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9, 10-14 (1990).
4. Kirkham, F., Klein, N. & Heyderman, R. Pediatric Central-Nervous-System Infections. Curr. Opin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 4, 417-422 (1991).